Utjecaj suvremenih aditivnih postupaka 3D printanja na razvoj svjetske industrije

The infl uence of modern additive technologies of 3D printing on the world industry development

Ana Herold Šopar, Slaven Crnjac

Sažetak

Trodimenzionalno printanje je aditivni postupak brze izrade prototipa, alata i kalupa ili gotovog proizvoda iz računalno pripremljenog modela. Bitan dio procesa proizvodnje izrada je prototipa jer procjenjujući njegovu kvalitetu i usklađenost s ostalim tehnološkim zahtjevima određuje se funkcionalnost budućeg proizvoda, uz rano uočavanje mogućih grešaka, te njihova brzog i efi kasnog ispravljanja. Temeljem konstrukcije koja je defi nirana i usklađena sa zahtjevima tehnologije izrađuje se CAD model koji se na uređaju za 3D ispis virtualno reže u slojeve, te uz precizno defi nirane parametre šalje na izradu. Aditivnim postupcima materijal se nanosi sloj-po-sloj, te upravo takvim načelom proizvodnje moguća je izrada vrlo komplicirane geometrije proizvoda koje bi klasičnim tehnološkim postupcima bilo vrlo teško ili nemoguće proizvesti. Ovisno o tipu uređaja rabe se različiti materijali i komponente čime je moguće kreirati predmete složenih svojstava ovisno o tehničkim zahtjevima proizvoda. Aditivni postupci najčešće se koriste u proizvodnji potrošačkih proizvoda/elektronike, automobilskoj industriji, medicini, metalurgiji, arhitekturi, čak i u prehrambenoj industriji. Noviteti u razvoju strojeva javljaju se sve bržim tempom čime ova tehnologija ima ključnu ulogu u razvoju i napretku svjetske industrije.

Ključne riječi: aditivni postupci, 3d printanje, cad model, prototip

Abstract

Th ree-dimensional printing is an additive technology of rapid making of prototype, tools and molds or fi nished product using computer generated model. Th e important part of the manufacturing process is the making of the prototype because based on its quality and compatibility with the rest of the technological requirements the functionality of the future product is determined, enabling the user to identify the errors and also to correct them quickly and effi ciently. Based on the construction that is defi ned and in compliance with the technological demands the CAD model is made. Th is model is virtually sliced on the 3D print device and is sent for manufacturing using the precisely defi ned parameters. Material is applied layer by layer through additive technologies, and this principle of manufacturing enables the production of very complex geometric of products which would be very diffi cult or impossible to manufacture using the standard techological procedures. Depending on the type of the device various materials and components are used and this enables the creation of objects of complex qualities which are determined by the technical requirements of the product. Additive technologies are most frequently used in production of consumer products / electronics, in car industry, medicine, metallurgy, architecture, even in nutrition industry. Th e innovations in machine development are happening at fast pace which gives this technology a key role in the development and progress of the world industry.

Keywords: additive procedures, 3d printing, cad model, prototype

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