NOVA TEHNOLOGIJA KVANTNE ZAŠTITE SMART KARTICA

Blaž Sviličić1, Marko Morić1, Damir Modrić2, Igor Majnarić2

1 Agencija za komercijalnu djelatnost, Zagreb
2Grafički fakultet, Sveučilište u Zagrebu

Sažetak

Tisak i ostali postupci u izradi smart kartica uključuju mnoštvo različitih elemenata koji sprječavaju krivotvorenje kartice. No možda najbolji mehanizam protiv krivotvorenja je integracija čipa u karticu (ICC) koji podržava kompleksne protokole za identifikaciju i autentifikaciju. Takve je protokole, bazirane na kriptiranoj komunikaciji između samog čipa i centralnog računala (npr. u banci), izrazito teško (i skupo) probijati. Ipak, skoro je nemoguće u potpunosti eliminirati mogućnost krivotvorenja tzv. pametnih kartica koje se koriste u sustavu, bez obzira koliko dobro kartice mogu biti zaštićene od napada. Suprotno gore navedenom prema nekim novijim mišljenjima, magnetska traka i elektronski čipovi su najslabija karika u sigurnosti pametnih kartica, te se predlaže uklanjanje tih nosača informacija. U ovom radu se diskutira o primjeni kvantnih točaka u zaštiti protiv krivotvorenja. U postupku izrade kartice, u određene njezine elemente (boja, polimer i sl.) unose se kvantne točke. Kvantnim točkama nazivamo kuglaste nakupine poluvodiča čiji dijametar iznosi do nekoliko desetaka nanometara. Kvantne točke su kemijski inertne, otporne na agresivnu okolinu te mogu neodređeno dugo vrijeme čuvati svoje karakteristike. Kvantne točkice ili nanokristali su poluvodičke čestice nanometarske veličine koje mogu imati optička svojstva koja proizlaze iz pojave koja se naziva kvantno ograničenje ili kvantno zatočenje. Pri taljenju plastične mase kvantne točke se raspoređuju na neponovljiv, slučajan način. Prilikom korištenja kartice, u uređaju za očitavanje registriraju se i predaju na server prostorne koordinate svake točke, gdje se čuva npr. uzorak konkretne kartice i putovnice. Dakle, kvantne tehnologije bi u budućnosti mogle zaista zamijeniti uvriježene mikročipove i vrpcu, a same bankovne kartice će se u tom slučaju pretvoriti u komadić bijele plastike bez otkrivajućih podataka. Ipak, treba naglasiti da u ovom trenutku eliminacija čipa ne dolazi u obzir jer još ne postoji alternativni jeftin i efikasan način pohrane svih podataka koje sadrži čip na kartici.

NEW TECHNOLOGY OF QUANTUM PROTECTION OF SMART CARDS

Abstract

Printing and other procedures in smart card production include many different elements that help prevent counterfeiting of cards. But perhaps the best mechanism against counterfeiting is the integration of the chip in card (ICC) that supports complex protocols for identification and authentication. Such protocols, based on encrypted communication between the integrated chip and the central computer (e.g. a bank), is extremely hard (and expensive) to crack. However, it is almost impossible to completely eliminate the possibility of counterfeiting of smart cards used in the system, no matter how good the card can be protected from attack. Contrary to the above, according to some recent opinions, magnetic strips and electronic chips are the weakest link in security of payment cards, so elimination of these information carriers is proposed. This paper discusses the application of quantum dots in the protection against counterfeiting. In the smart card production process quantum dots are introduced in card’s constituent elements (color, polymer pellets and similar). Quantum dots are called spherical clusters of semiconductors with a diameter of up to several tens of nanometers. Quantum dots are chemically inert, resistant to aggressive environments and can indefinitely keep its characteristics. Quantum dots or nanocrystals are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles that may have optical properties arising from the phenomenon that is known as quantum confinement. During the melting of plastics quantum dots are arranged in a unique, random manner. When using the card reading device registers and transmits spatial coordinates of each point to server where are kept sample of concrete card and / or passport. Thus, quantum technology in future could indeed replace the customary microchips and magnetic strips, a bank cards itself will turn in piece of white plastic without revealing any critical data. However, it should be noted that at this point the elimination of the chip is not an option because there is still no alternative cost effective and efficient way of storing all the data contained in the chip on the card.


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