Vizualno shvaćanje grada / Jedan kritički pristup modelu Kevina Lyncha

Iva Kostešić1, Feđa Vukić1

1Sveučilište u Zagrebu Arhitektonski fakultet, Studij dizajna, Frankopanska 12, Zagreb, Hrvatska

Sažetak

Slika grada skup je pojedinačnih vizualizacija promatrača (građana) koje su neophodne za razumijevanje i snalaženje u određenoj urbanoj sredini, ali je isto tako i cjelokupni doživljaj te sredine. Gradovi, pa tako i njihova vizualna pojavnost, nisu statične tvorevine, koliko god su njegove osnovne komponente naizgled čvrsto vezane uz tlo. Gradovi kao strukture podliježu promjenama – posebno promjeni odnosno, protokom vremena, pa se tako mijenja i vizualno sučelje urbane sredine. Prema Kevinu Lynchu sliku grada čine materijalne datosti i karakteristike ali i nematerijalne, u simboličkoj domeni. U sferi fizičkog se prema Lynchovoj klasifikaciji identificira pet osnovnih kategorija primjenjivih na sve gradove: putovi, rubovi, područja, čvorišta i orijentiri. Sadržaj tih kategorija mijenja se s vremenom i u odnosu na onoga koji promatra ili pak u odnosu na način organizacije grada ili njegovu veličinu. Svi ti elementi urbane strukture međusobno su povezani i u konačnici se uklapaju u jedinstvenu sliku. Primjenom navedenog Lynchovog modela, analizom konkretne gradske sredine i urbanog dizajna u radu će mu se kritički pristupiti primjenom na primjeru grada Zagreba i njegove urbane strukture. Poseban naglasak u analizi vizualnog sučelja posvetiti će se razlici između planiranog i spontanog urbanog dizajna, kako bi se čim preciznije zahvatilo u zatečeni identitet grada.
Ključne riječi: slika grada, urbani dizajn, vizualno sučelje, zatečeni identitet

Visualizing the City / A Critical Approach to Kevin Lynch's Model

Abstract

The image of a city is an assembly of individual visualizations of viewers (citizens) that are crucial for comprehending a specific urban environment. It also represents an overall experience of a given surrounding. Cities, and their visual occurrences, are not static, however its’ components seem firmly grounded. Cities are subject to change – especially to the passage of time, changing the visual interface of the urban environment. According to Kevin Lynch, the image of a city is made of both material and immaterial features, those in the realm of the symbolic. Within the physical Lynch identifies five elements common to all cities: paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. The content of these elements changes over time, in regard to the viewer, to a city’s organization and size. Elements of urban structure are interrelated finally making a single image. This paper will give a critical approach to Lynch’s model through analyses of specific urban environment and urban design based on the city of Zagreb and its’ urban structure. In the attempt to grasp the city’s identity as found in research, the focus of the analyses of the visual interface will be set on the difference between the planned and spontaneous urban design.
Keywords: image of the city, urban design, visual interface, the found identity


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